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Implementation of Orthogonal Codes Using MZI

[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 3 ]


Supriti Samanta, Goutam K. Maity* and Subhadipta Mukhopadhyay   Pages 159 - 167 ( 9 )


Background: In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)/Multi-Carrier CDMA (MCCDMA), Walsh-Hadamard codes are widely used for its orthogonal characteristics, and hence, it leads to good contextual connection property. These orthogonal codes are important because of their various significant applications.

Objective: To use the Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for all-optical Walsh-Hadamard codes is implemented in this present paper.

Method: The Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is considered for the Tree architecture of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA). The second-ordered Hadamard and the inverse Hadamard matrix are constructed using SOA-MZIs. Higher-order Hadamard matrix (H4) formed by the process of Kronecker product with lower-order Hadamard matrix (H2) is also analyzed and constructed.

Results: To experimentally get the result from these schemes, some design issues e,g Time delay, nonlinear phase modulation, extinction ratio, and synchronization of signals are the important issues. Lasers of wavelength 1552 nm and 1534 nm can be used as input and control signals, respectively. As the whole system is digital, intensity losses due to couplers in the interconnecting stage may not create many problems in producing the desired optical bits at the output. The simulation results were obtained by Matlab-9. Here, Hadamard H2 (2×2) matrix output beam intensity (I ≈ 108 w.m-2) for different values of inputs.

Conclusion: Implementation of Walsh-Hadamard codes using MZI is explored in this paper, and experimental results show the better performance of the proposed scheme compared to recently reported methods using electronic circuits regarding the issues of versatility, reconfigurability, and compactness. The design can be used and extended for diverse applications for which Walsh-Hadamard codes are required.


Orthogonal codes, semiconductor optical amplifier, Mach–Zehnder interferometer, walsh-hadamard code, MZI, time delay.


Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, Department of Physics, Pingla Thana Mahavidyalaya, Paschim-Medinipur 721140, West Bengal, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032

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